Windows Cygwin 工具链

该工具链非常轻便,而且容易安装和使用。 它是目前Windows环境下用于PX4开发的最新和最好的工具。

这是官方唯一支持的在Windows环境下开发PX4的工具链(它已经在集成测试系统中经过测试)

该工具链支持:

  • 编译/上传 PX4到Nuttx目标(Pixhawk系列飞控)
  • JMAVSim/SITL 仿真会获得比其他Windows工具链更好的性能
  • 类型校验,轻便安装,完整的命令行支持和许多其他特性

这篇文章将解释怎样下载和使用该环境,并且在需要的时候怎样扩展和更新(比如,使用其他的编译器)。

Installation Instructions

  1. Download the latest version of the ready-to-use MSI installer from: Github releases or Amazon S3 (fast download).
  2. Run it, choose your desired installation location, let it install: jMAVSimOnWindows
  3. 在安装结束后勾选clone the PX4 repository, build and run simulation with jMAVSim(这简化了你的开始准备工作)

    If you missed this step you will need to clone the PX4-Autopilot repository manually.

Getting Started

The toolchain uses a specially configured console window (started by running the run-console.bat script) from which you can call the normal PX4 build commands:

  1. 进入到工具链的安装目录(默认C:\PX4)
  2. 运行run-console.bat(双击)启动Cygwin bash控制台
  3. Clone the PX4 PX4-Autopilot repository from within the console:

    只需要克隆一次 如果你在安装程序最后选择了clone the PX4 repository, build and run simulation with jMAVSim,则可以跳过这一步。

     # Clone the PX4-Autopilot repository into the home folder & loads submodules in parallel
     git clone --recursive -j8 https://github.com/PX4/PX4-Autopilot.git
    

    You can now use the console/PX4-Autopilot repository to build PX4.

  4. 举例,要运行JMAVSim:

     # Navigate to PX4-Autopilot repo
     cd PX4-Autopilot
     # Build and runs SITL simulation with jMAVSim to test the setup
     make px4_sitl jmavsim
    

    控制台将会显示:

    jMAVSimOnWindows

Continue next to the detailed instructions on how to build PX4 (or see the section below for more general usage instructions).

Usage Instructions

The installation directory (default: C:\PX4) contains a batch script for launching the PX4 SITL (linux like) bash console: run-console.bat

Manual Setup 部分解释了为什么需要使用该脚本以及它的工作原理。

The ordinary workflow consists of starting a console window by double clicking on the run-console.bat script to manually run terminal commands.

File Monitoring Tools vs Toolchain Speed

Antivirus and other background file monitoring tools can significantly slow down both installation of the toolchain and PX4 build times.

You may wish to halt them temporarily during builds (at your own risk).

Windows & Git Special Cases

Windows CR+LF 对比 Unix LF 行结尾

We recommend that you force Unix style LF endings for every repository you're working with using this toolchain (and use an editor which preserves them when saving your changes - e.g. Eclipse or VS Code). Compilation of source files also works with CR+LF endings checked out locally, but there are cases in Cygwin (e.g. execution of shell scripts) that require Unix line endings (otherwise you get errors like $'\r': Command not found.). Luckily git can do this for you when you execute the two commands in the root directory of your repo:

git config core.autocrlf false
git config core.eol lf

If you work with this toolchain on multiple repositories you can also set these two configurations globally for your machine:

git config --global ...

This is not recommended because it may affect any other (unrelated) git use on your Windows machine.

Unix 执行权限

Under Unix there's a flag in the permissions of each file that tells the OS whether or not the file is allowed to be executed. git under Cygwin supports and cares about that bit (even though the Windows NTFS file system does not use it). This often results in git finding "false-positive" differences in permissions. The resulting diff might look like this:

diff --git ...
old mode 100644
new mode 100755

We recommend globally disabling the permission check on Windows to avoid the problem:

git config --global core.fileMode false # disable execution bit check globally for the machine

For existing repositories that have this problem caused by a local configuration, additionally:

git config --unset core.filemode # 移除当前存储库的局部配置,改用全局配置
git submodule foreach --recursive git config --unset core.filemode # 移除所有子模块的局部配置

附加信息

Features / Issues

The following features are known to work (version 2.0):

  • 使用 jMAVSim 编译和运行 SITL, 其性能明显优于虚拟机 (Cygwin会生成一个本机 windows 二进制文件 px4.exe )。
  • 编译和上传 NuttX 二进制文件(例如:px4_fmu-v2 和 px4_fmu-v4)。
  • 使用 astyle 进行格式检查 (支持命令: make format)。
  • 命令行自动补全。
  • 绿色安装! 安装程序不会影响您的系统和全局路径设置 (它只修改选定的安装目录, 例如 C:\PX4 \ 并使用临时本地路径变量)。
  • 安装程序支持更新到最新版本, 同时保持您的个人更改在工具链文件夹中。

Omissions:

  • Simulation: Gazebo and ROS are not supported.
  • 仅支持 NuttX 和 JMAVSim/SITL 编译。
  • Known problems (Also use to report issues).

Shell Script Installation

You can also install the environment using shell scripts in the Github project.

  1. 请确保安装了 Windows Git
  2. 将代码仓库 https://github.com/PX4/windows-toolchain 克隆到要安装工具链的位置。 打开 Git Bash 并执行以下操作,打开后会自动进入默认的安装目录:

    cd /c/ git clone https://github.com/PX4/windows-toolchain PX4

  1. 如果要安装所有组件, 请进入到新克隆的代码仓库文件夹, 然后双击位于文件夹 toolchain目录中的脚本 install-all-components.bat。 如果您只需要某些组件并希望占用有限的Internet 数据和磁盘空间, 则可以进入到不同的组件文件夹, 如 toolchain\cygwin64, 然后单击 install-XXX.bat 脚本以获取特定的内容。
  2. 继续 入门指南 (或 使用说明 )

Manual Installation (for Toolchain Developers)

This section describes how to setup the Cygwin toolchain manually yourself while pointing to the corresponding scripts from the script based installation repo. The result should be the same as using the scripts or MSI installer.

因为工具链的更新,下述指令可能无法涵盖未来所有更改的每个细节。

  1. 创建 文件夹 : C:\PX4 \ C:\PX4\toolchain \ C:\PX4\home \
  2. Cygwin 官方网站 下载 Cygwin 安装程序 文件 official Cygwin website
  3. 运行下载的安装程序文件
  4. 在安装向导中选择安装到文件夹中: C:\PX4\toolchain\cygwin64 \
  5. 选择安装默认的 Cygwin 基础包和以下附加包的最新可用版本:

  6. 目录:安装包名

  7. Devel:cmake (3.3.2 正常工作无告警, 3.6.2有告警但能够正常工作)
  8. Devel:gcc-g++
  9. Devel:gdb
  10. Devel:git
  11. Devel:make
  12. Devel:ninja
  13. Devel:patch
  14. Editors:xxd
  15. Editors:nano (unless you're the vim pro)
  16. Python:python2
  17. Python:python2-pip
  18. Python:python2-numpy
  19. Python:python2-jinja2
  20. Python:python2-pyyaml
  21. Python:python2-cerberus
  22. Archive:unzip
  23. Utils:astyle
  24. Shells:bash-completion
  25. Web:wget

    Do not select as many packages as possible which are not on this list, there are some which conflict and break the builds.

    That's what cygwin64/install-cygwin-px4.bat does.

  26. Write up or copy the batch scripts run-console.bat and setup-environment.bat.

    使用预先准备好的批处理脚本启动开发环境的原因是,这些脚本预配置了程序使用工具链所在目录下的绿色版 Cygwin 环境变量。 This is done by always first calling the script setup-environment.bat and the desired application like the console after that.

    The script setup-environment.bat locally sets environmental variables for the workspace root directory PX4_DIR, all binary locations PATH, and the home directory of the unix environment HOME.

  27. 通过执行 Cygwin 工具链控制台 (双击 run-console.bat ) 脚本, 向安装程序添加必要的 python 包

     pip2 install toml 
     pip2 install pyserial 
     pip2 install pyulog
    
> ** 注意 **这就是 [ cygwin64/install-cygwin-pxbat ](https://github.com/MaEtUgR/PX4Toolchain/blob/master/toolchain/cygwin64/install-cygwin-python-packages.bat) 所做的工作。
  1. 下载 ARM GCC 编译器 zip 存档,并将内容解压缩到文件夹 C:\PX4\toolchain\gcc-arm

    这就是工具链在 gcc-arm/install-gcc-arm.bat 脚本中所做的工作。

  2. 安装 JDK

    • Download Java 14 from Oracle or AdoptOpenJDK.
    • 因为不幸的是, 没有绿色的归档文件直接包含二进制文件, 所以您必须安装它。
    • 查找二进制文件并将其移动/复制到 C:\PX4\toolchain\jdk
    • 您可以再次从 Windows 系统中卸载该JDK工具包, 我们只需要工具链的二进制文件。

      这就是工具链在 gcc-arm/install-jdk.bat 脚本中所做的工作。

  3. 下载 Apache Ant zip 存档, 并将内容解压缩到文件夹 C:\PX4\toolchain\apache-ant

    请确保您没有从下载的归档文件内的文件夹中添加其他文件夹层。

    这就是工具链在 gcc-arm/install-apache-ant.bat 脚本中所做的工作。

  4. 下载、编译并将 genromfs 添加到环境变量:

    • 将源代码克隆到文件夹 C:\PX4\toolchain\genromfs\genromfs-src 中,
        cd /c/toolchain/genromfs
        git clone https://github.com/chexum/genromfs.git genromfs-src
      
  5. 使用如下命令进行编译:

      cd genromfs-src
       make all
    
    • 将包含有生成的二进制 genromfs.exe 的文件夹复制到: C:\PX4\toolchain\genromfs

      这就是工具链在 gcc-arm/install-genromfs.bat 脚本中所做的工作。

  6. Make sure all the binary folders of all the installed components are correctly listed in the PATH variable configured by setup-environment.bat.

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