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此页演示如何使用相机（Logitech C920 或 RaspberryPi 相机）设置配套计算机，这样的视频流从无人机传输到地面计算机并以 QGroundControl 显示。 The mechanism also provide a bidirectional telemetry link (i.e. like SiK radio). This setup uses WiFi in unconnected (broadcast) mode and software from the Wifibroadcast project.
在使用 Wifibroadcast 检查规章是否允许在您的国家使用这种 wifi。
The Wifibroadcast project provides video and telemetry transport that use low-level WiFi packets to avoid the distance and latency limitations of the ordinary IEEE 802.11 stack.
- 1:1 map RTP to IEEE 802.11 packets for minimum latency (doesn't serialize to byte steam).
- 智能 FEC 支持（如果 FEC 管道没有间隔，立即将数据包提供给视频解码器）。
- Bidirectional MAVLink telemetry. You can use it for MAVLink up/down and video down link.
- Automatic TX diversity (select TX card based on RX RSSI).
- Stream encryption and authentication (libsodium).
- Distributed operation. It can gather data from cards on different hosts. So you aren't limited to bandwidth of single USB bus.
- Aggregation of MAVLink packets. Doesn't send WiFi packet for every MAVLink packet.
- Enhanced OSD for Raspberry PI (consume 10% CPU on PI Zero).
- Compatible with any screen resolution. Supports aspect correction for PAL to HD scaling.
- NanoPI NEO2 (and/or Raspberry Pi if using Pi camera).
- Logitech camera C920 或者 Raspberry Pi camera.
- WiFi module ALPHA AWUS036ACH.
- 任何使用 linux 的计算机 (在 fedora 25 x86-64 上测试)。
- WiFi module ALPHA AWUS036ACH. See wifibroadcast wiki > WiFi hardware for more information on supported modules.
If you don't need high-power cards, you can use any card with rtl8812au chipset.
Alpha AWUS036ACH is a high power card that uses too much current while transmitting. If you power it from USB it will reset the port on most ARM boards. So it must be directly connected to 5V BEC in one of two ways:
- Make a custom USB cable (cut
+5Vwire from USB plug and connect it to BEC
- Cut a
+5Vwire on PCB near USB port and wire it to BEC (don't do this if doubt - use custom cable instead). Also I suggest to add 470uF low ESR capacitor (like ESC has) between power and ground to filter voltage spikes. Be aware of ground loop when using several ground wires.
To setup the (Linux) development computer:
- Install libpcap and libsodium development libs and install python2.7 + python-twisted packages.
- 下载 wifibroadcast sources。
- See Setup HOWTO how to build debian, rpm or tar.gz package and configure it.
Setup camera to output RTP stream:
a. Logitech camera C920 camera:
gst-launch-1.0 uvch264src device=/dev/video0 initial-bitrate=4000000 average-bitrate=4000000 iframe-period=3000 name=src auto-start=true \ src.vidsrc ! queue ! video/x-h264,width=1280,height=720,framerate=30/1 ! h264parse ! rtph264pay ! udpsink host=localhost port=5602 b. RaspberryPi camera: ```raspivid --nopreview --awb auto -ih -t 0 -w 1280 -h 720 -fps 49 -b 4000000 -g 147 -pf high -o - | gst-launch-1.0 fdsrc ! h264parse ! rtph264pay ! udpsink host=127.0.0.1 port=5602```
Configure WFB for drone as described in Setup HOWTO
Configure autopilot (px4 stack) to output telemetry stream at 1500kbps (other UART speeds doesn't match well to NEO2 frequency dividers). Setup mavlink-router to route MAVLink packets to/from WFB:
[UdpEndpoint wifibroadcast] Mode = Normal Address = 127.0.0.1 Port = 14550
Run QGroundControl or use the following command to decode video:
gst-launch-1.0 udpsrc port=5600 caps='application/x-rtp, media=(string)video, clock-rate=(int)90000, encoding-name=(string)H264' \ ! rtph264depay ! avdec_h264 ! clockoverlay valignment=bottom ! autovideosink fps-update-interval=1000 sync=false
Configure WFB for ground station as described in Setup HOWTO.
With default settings WFB use radio channel 165 (5825 MHz), width 20MHz, MCS #1 (QPSK 1/2) with long GI. This provides ~7 mbit/s of effective speed (i.e. usable speed after FEC and packet encoding) for both directions in sum, because WiFi is half-duplex. So it is suitable for video down stream 720p@49fps (4 mbit/s) + two full-speed telemetry streams (uplink and downlink). If you need a higher bandwidth you can use other MCS index (for example 2 or greater) and/or 40MHz channel.
For simple cases you can use omnidirectional antennas with linear (that bundled with wifi cards) or circular leaf (circularly polarized Coverleaf Antenna) polarization. If you want to setup long distance link you can use multiple wifi adapters with directional and omnidirectional antennas. TX/RX diversity for multiple adapters supported out of box (just add multiple NICs to
/etc/default/wifibroadcast). If your WiFi adapter has two antennas (like Alfa AWU036ACH) TX diversity is implemented via STBC. Cards with 4 ports (like Alfa AWUS1900) are currently not supported for TX diversity (only RX is supported).
Q: What is a difference from original wifibroadcast?
A: The original version of wifibroadcast used a byte-stream as input and split it to packets of fixed size (1024 by default). With this scheme if radio packets were lost (and this was not corrected by FEC) the result was random/unexpected holes in the stream. This is especially bad if the data protocol is not resistant to such random erasures.
The new version was rewritten to use UDP as data source and pack one source UDP packet into one radio packet. Radio packets now have variable size that depends on payload size. This significantly reduces a video latency.
Q: What type of data can be transmitted using wifibroadcast?
A: Any UDP with packet size <= 1466. For example x264 inside RTP or MAVLink.
Q: What are transmission guarantees?
A: Wifibrodcast use FEC (forward error correction) which can recover 4 lost packets from 12 packets block with default settings. You can tune it (both TX and RX simultaneously!) to fit your needs.
Don't use band that the RC TX operates on! Or setup RTL properly to avoid model loss.
Q: Is only Raspberry PI supported?
A: Wifibroadcast is not tied to any GPU - it operates with UDP packets. But to get RTP stream you need a video encoder (with encode raw data from camera to x264 stream). In my case RPI is only used for video encoding (because RPI Zero is too slow to do anything else) and all other tasks (including wifibroadcast) are done by other board (NanoPI NEO2).
Wifibroadcast puts the WiFi cards into monitor mode. This mode allows to send and receive arbitrary packets without association and waiting for ACK packets. Analysis of Injection Capabilities and Media Access of IEEE 802.11 Hardware in Monitor Mode 802.11 timings
|Raspberry Pi Zero||- Huge community|
- Camera support
- HW video encoder/decoder with OMX API. | - Hard to buy outside US (shipping costs >> its price)
- Slow CPU
- Only one USB bus
- 512MB SDRAM | | Odroid C0 | - Fast CPU
- 1GB SDRAM | - Very sensitive to radio interference
- Doesn't supported by mainline kernel
- High cost
- HW video encoder is broken
- Bad PCB quality (too thin, ground pins without thermal relief) | | NanoPI NEO2 | - ARM 64-bit CPU
- Very cheap
- Supported by mainline kernel
- 3 independent USB busses
- 1Gbps Ethernet port
- 3 UARTs
- Very small form-factor
- Resistant to radio interference | - 小的社区群体
- 512MB SDRAM
- 没有相机接口 |
This article chose to use Pi Zero as camera board (encode video) and NEO2 as main UAV board (wifibroadcast, MAVLink telemetry, etc.)
- Make prebuilt images. Pull requests are welcome.
- Do a flight test with different cards/antennas.