PX4 소프트웨어 빌드

PX4는 모의시험 환경과 하드웨어 타겟 모두에 대해 콘솔 또는 IDE 환경에서 빌드할 수 있습니다.

다음 절차를 따르기 전에 우선 개발자 툴체인을 호스트 운영 체제와 타겟 하드웨어용으로 설치해야합니다.

일반 빌드 문제에 대한 해결책은 하단의 문제 해결 부준을 참고하십시오.

Download the PX4 Source Code

The PX4 source code is stored on Github in the PX4/PX4-Autopilot repository. To get the very latest version onto your computer, enter the following command into a terminal:

git clone https://github.com/PX4/PX4-Autopilot.git --recursive

이 방법이 최신 코드를 빌드하는데 필요한 모든 과정입니다. PX4에 기여할 목적의 더 많은 git 활용 내용은 git 예제 > PX4에 코드 기여하기 에 있습니다.

First Build (Using the jMAVSim Simulator)

First we'll build a simulated target using a console environment. This allows us to validate the system setup before moving on to real hardware and an IDE.

Navigate into the PX4-Autopilot directory and start jMAVSim using the following command:

make px4_sitl jmavsim

This will bring up the PX4 console below:

PX4 Console (jMAVSim)

The drone can be flown by typing:

pxh> commander takeoff

jMAVSim UI

The drone can be landed by typing commander land and the whole simulation can be stopped by doing CTRL+C (or by entering shutdown).

Flying the simulation with the ground control station is closer to the real operation of the vehicle. Click on a location in the map while the vehicle is flying (takeoff flight mode) and enable the slider. This will reposition the vehicle.

QGroundControl GoTo

가제보(Gazebo) 모의시험 환경, AirSim 모의시험 환경과 같은 다른 여러 모의시험 환경에서도 PX4를 활용할 수 있습니다. 이들 역시 make 명령으로 시작합니다. 예를 들면: make px4_sitl gazebo

NuttX / Pixhawk Based Boards

Building

To build for NuttX- or Pixhawk- based boards, navigate into the PX4-Autopilot directory and then call make with the build target for your board.

For example, to build for Pixracer you would use the following command:

cd PX4-Autopilot
make px4_fmu-v4_default

위 예제에서 빌드 타겟의 처음 부분인 px4_fmu-v4는 비행체 제어부 하드웨어 일부 기종용 펌웨어 이름이며, default는 설정 이름입니다 (이 경우 "default" 설정입니다). default는 선택 사항이기에, 대신 다음 명령을 실행할 수 있습니다: make px4_fmu-v4

A successful run will end with similar output to:

-- Build files have been written to: /home/youruser/src/PX4-Autopilot/build/px4_fmu-v4_default
[954/954] Creating /home/youruser/src/PX4-Autopilot/build/px4_fmu-v4_default/px4_fmu-v4_default.px4

The following list shows the build commands for common boards:

  • Pixhawk 4: make px4_fmu-v5_default
  • Pixhawk 4 Mini: make px4_fmu-v5_default
  • CUAV V5+: make px4_fmu-v5_default
  • CUAV V5 nano: make px4_fmu-v5_default
  • Holybro Kakute F7: make holybro_kakutef7_default
  • Pixracer: make px4_fmu-v4_default
  • Pixhawk 3 Pro: make px4_fmu-v4pro_default
  • Pixhawk Mini: make px4_fmu-v3_default
  • Cube Black: make px4_fmu-v3_default
  • Cube Yellow: make hex_cube-yellow
  • Cube Orange: make hex_cube-orange
  • mRo Pixhawk: make px4_fmu-v3_default (2MB 플래시 메모리 지원)
  • HKPilot32: make px4_fmu-v2_default
  • Pixfalcon: make px4_fmu-v2_default
  • Dropix: make px4_fmu-v2_default
  • MindPX/MindRacer: make airmind_mindpx-v2_default
  • mRo X-2.1: make mro_x21_default
  • Crazyflie 2.0: make bitcraze_crazyflie_default
  • Intel® Aero Ready to Fly Drone: make intel_aerofc-v1_default
  • Pixhawk 1: make px4_fmu-v2_default > Warning 이 보드를 대상으로 빌드하려면 지원하는 GCC 버전(예: CI/docker에서 사용하는 버전과 동일)을 활용 해야 하거나, 빌드에서 모듈을 제거해야합니다. 지원하지 않는 버전의 GCC 로 빌드하면, PX4 보드의 1MB 플래시 용량 제한에 가까워져 실패할 수 있습니다.
  • 2 MB flash의 Pixhawk 1: make px4_fmu-v3_default

보통 _default 접미사는 선택 입력사항입니다 (예: make px4_fmu-v4, make bitcraze_crazyflie, 등의 명령으로도 빌드할 수 있습니다.).

펌웨어 업로드 (보드 플래싱)

Append upload to the make commands to upload the compiled binary to the autopilot hardware via USB. For example

make px4_fmu-v4_default upload

A successful run will end with this output:

Erase  : [====================] 100.0%
Program: [====================] 100.0%
Verify : [====================] 100.0%
Rebooting.

[100%] Built target upload

기타 보드

The following boards have more complicated build and/or deployment instructions.

라즈베리 파이 2/3 보드

The command below builds the target for Raspberry Pi 2/3 Navio2.

교차 컴파일러 빌드

Set the IP (or hostname) of your RPi using:

export AUTOPILOT_HOST=192.168.X.X

or

export AUTOPILOT_HOST=pi_hostname.domain

환경 변수 값을 빌드 전에 설정하지 않으면, make upload 명령 실행시 라즈베리 파이 찾기에 실패합니다.

Build the executable file:

cd PX4-Autopilot
make emlid_navio2 # for cross-compiler build

The "px4" executable file is in the directory build/emlid_navio2_default/. Make sure you can connect to your RPi over ssh, see instructions how to access your RPi.

Then upload it with:

cd PX4-Autopilot
make emlid_navio2 upload # for cross-compiler build

Then, connect over ssh and run it with (as root):

cd ~/px4
sudo ./bin/px4 -s px4.config

자체 빌드

If you're building directly on the Pi, you will want the native build target (emlid_navio2_native).

cd PX4-Autopilot
make emlid_navio2_native # for native build

The "px4" executable file is in the directory build/emlid_navio2_native/. Run it directly with:

sudo ./build/emlid_navio2_native/px4 build/emlid_navio2_native/etc -s ./posix-configs/rpi/px4.config

A successful build followed by executing px4 will give you something like this:

<br />______  __   __    ___
| ___ \ \ \ / /   /   |
| |_/ /  \ V /   / /| |
|  __/   /   \  / /_| |
| |     / /^\ \ \___  |
\_|     \/   \/     |_/

px4 starting.


pxh>

자동 시작

To autostart px4, add the following to the file /etc/rc.local (adjust it accordingly if you use native build), right before the exit 0 line:

cd /home/pi && ./bin/px4 -d -s px4.config > px4.log

OcPoC-Zynq Mini

Build instructions for the OcPoC-Zynq Mini are covered in:

QuRT / 스냅드래곤 기반 보드

This section shows how to build for the Qualcomm Snapdragon Flight.

빌드

(UART 기반) 퀄컴 전동 변속기 보드를 사용한다면, 이 곳 절차를 따르십시오. PWM기반 일반 전동 변속기 보드를 사용한다면 이 페이지의 다음 과정을 계속 따르는 것이 좋습니다.

The commands below build the targets for the Linux and the DSP side. Both executables communicate via muORB.

cd PX4-Autopilot
make atlflight_eagle_default

To load the SW on the device, connect via USB cable and make sure the device is booted. Run this in a new terminal window:

adb shell

Go back to previous terminal and upload:

make atlflight_eagle_default upload

Note that this will also copy (and overwrite) the two config files mainapp.config and px4.config to the device. Those files are stored under /usr/share/data/adsp/px4.config and /home/linaro/mainapp.config respectively if you want to edit the startup scripts directly on your vehicle.

The mixer currently needs to be copied manually:

adb push ROMFS/px4fmu_common/mixers/quad_x.main.mix  /usr/share/data/adsp

실행

Run the DSP debug monitor:

${HEXAGON_SDK_ROOT}/tools/debug/mini-dm/Linux_Debug/mini-dm

Note: alternatively, especially on Mac, you can also use nano-dm.

Go back to ADB shell and run px4:

cd /home/linaro
./px4 -s mainapp.config

Note that the px4 will stop as soon as you disconnect the USB cable (or if you ssh session is disconnected). To fly, you should make the px4 auto-start after boot.

자동 시작

To run the px4 as soon as the Snapdragon has booted, you can add the startup to rc.local:

Either edit the file /etc/rc.local directly on the Snapdragon:

adb shell
vim /etc/rc.local

Or copy the file to your computer, edit it locally, and copy it back:

adb pull /etc/rc.local
gedit rc.local
adb push rc.local /etc/rc.local

For the auto-start, add the following line before exit 0:

(cd /home/linaro && ./px4 -s mainapp.config > mainapp.log)

exit 0

Make sure that the rc.local is executable:

adb shell
chmod +x /etc/rc.local

Then reboot the Snapdragon:

adb reboot

그래픽 IDE에서의 컴파일

The PX4 system supports Qt Creator, Eclipse and Sublime Text. Qt Creator is the most user-friendly variant and hence the only officially supported IDE. Unless an expert in Eclipse or Sublime, their use is discouraged. Hardcore users can find an Eclipse project and a Sublime project in the source tree.

Qt Creator 기능

Qt creator offers clickable symbols, auto-completion of the complete codebase and building and flashing firmware.

리눅스용 Qt Creator

Before starting Qt Creator, the project file needs to be created:

cd ~/src/PX4-Autopilot
mkdir ../Firmware-build
cd ../Firmware-build
cmake ../PX4-Autopilot -G "CodeBlocks - Unix Makefiles"

Then load the CMakeLists.txt in the root PX4-Autopilot folder via File > Open File or Project (Select the CMakeLists.txt file).

After loading, the play button can be configured to run the project by selecting 'custom executable' in the run target configuration and entering 'make' as executable and 'upload' as argument.

Windows용 Qt Creator

윈도우에서는 Qt 크리에이터로 PX4 개발을 시험해보지 않았습니다.

Mac OS용 Qt Creator

Before starting Qt Creator, the project file needs to be created:

cd ~/src/PX4-Autopilot
mkdir -p build/creator
cd build/creator
cmake ../.. -G "CodeBlocks - Unix Makefiles"

That's it! Start Qt Creator, then complete the steps in the video below to set up the project to build.

PX4 Make Build Targets

The previous sections showed how you can call make to build a number of different targets, start simulators, use IDEs etc. This section shows how make options are constructed and how to find the available choices.

The full syntax to call make with a particular configuration and initialization file is:

make [VENDOR_][MODEL][_VARIANT] [VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER_WORLD]

VENDOR_MODEL_VARIANT: (also known as CONFIGURATION_TARGET)

  • VENDOR: 보드의 제조사: px4, aerotenna, airmind, atlflight, auav, beaglebone, intel, nxp 등. 픽스호크 계열 보드 제조사 이름은 px4 입니다.
  • MODEL: 보드 "모델": sitl, fmu-v2, fmu-v3, fmu-v4, fmu-v5, navio2 등.
  • VARIANT: 개별 일부 설정을 나타냅니다. 예: default 설정에 일부 구성요소가 들어있지 않는 rtps, lpe. 대부분 default를 사용하며, 생략합니다.

아래 명령으로 모든 가용 CONFIGURATION_TARGET 옵션을 확인해볼 수 있습니다:

sh
  make list_config_targets

VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER_WORLD:

  • VIEWER: gazebo, jmavsim에 연결할 모의실험 환경("viewer")

  • MODEL: 모의시험 환경에서 불러와서 활용할 운송 수단 모델(예: iris (default), rover, tailsitter 등). 적절한 매개변수를 선택하는 시작 스크립트에서 활용할 선택 모델을 PX4_SIM_MODEL 환경 변수로 설정합니다.

  • DEBUGGER: 활용 디버거 none (default), ide, gdb, lldb, ddd, valgrind, callgrind. 자세한 내용은 모의시험 환경 디버깅을 살펴보십시오.

  • WORLD: (가제보 전용). 불러온 월드(PX4/sitl_gazebo/worlds)를 설정합니다. 기본값은 empty.world입니다. 자세한 내용은 가제보 > 지정 월드 불러오기를 살펴보십시오.

아래 명령으로 모든 가용 VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER_WORLD 옵션을 확인할 수 있습니다:

sh
  make px4_sitl list_vmd_make_targets

Notes:

  • CONFIGURATION_TARGET 변수와 VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGER 변수의 대부분의 값은 기본값이기에, 다른 값으로의 설정은 선택입니다. 예를 들어 gazebogazebo_iris 또는 gazebo_iris_none과 동일합니다.
  • 두개의 다른 설정 사이에 기본값을 지정하려면 밑줄 문자를 셋 사용할 수 있습니다. 예를 들면, gazebo___gdbgazebo_iris_gdb와 동일합니다.
  • PX4를 시작한 후 모의시험 환경의 동작을 기다리려면 VIEWER_MODEL_DEBUGGERnone 값을 사용할 수 있습니다. 예로, make px4_sitl_default none 명령을 사용하는 PX4와 ./Tools/jmavsim_run.sh -l 명령을 사용하는 jMAVSim을 시작하려면:

The VENDOR_MODEL_VARIANT options map to particular cmake configuration files in the PX4 source tree under the /boards directory. Specifically VENDOR_MODEL_VARIANT maps to a configuration file boards/VENDOR/MODEL/VARIANT.cmake (e.g. px4_fmu-v5_default corresponds to boards/px4/fmu-v5/default.cmake).

Additional make targets are discussed in the following sections (list is not exhaustive):

Binary Size Profiling

The bloaty_compare_master build target allows you to get a better understanding of the impact of changes on code size. When it is used, the toolchain downloads the latest successful master build of a particular firmware and compares it to the local build (using the bloaty size profiler for binaries).

이 과정을 통해 px4_fmu-v2_default 빌드 대상이 (아마도) 1MB 플래시 용량 제한에 걸리는 원인 변경을 분석할 수 있습니다.

Bloaty must be in your path and found at cmake configure time. The PX4 docker files install bloaty as shown:

git clone --recursive https://github.com/google/bloaty.git /tmp/bloaty \
    && cd /tmp/bloaty && cmake -GNinja . && ninja bloaty && cp bloaty /usr/local/bin/ \
    && rm -rf /tmp/*

The example below shows how you might see the impact of removing the mpu9250 driver from px4_fmu-v2_default. First it locally sets up a build without the driver:

 % git diff
diff --git a/boards/px4/fmu-v2/default.cmake b/boards/px4/fmu-v2/default.cmake
index 40d7778..2ce7972 100644
--- a/boards/px4/fmu-v2/default.cmake
+++ b/boards/px4/fmu-v2/default.cmake
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ px4_add_board(
                imu/l3gd20
                imu/lsm303d
                imu/mpu6000

-               imu/mpu9250
+               #imu/mpu9250
                #iridiumsbd
                #irlock
                #magnetometer # all available magnetometer drivers

Then use the make target, specifying the target build to compare (px4_fmu-v2_default in this case):

% make px4_fmu-v2_default bloaty_compare_master
...
...
...
     VM SIZE                                                                                        FILE SIZE
 --------------                                                                                  --------------
  [DEL]     -52 MPU9250::check_null_data(unsigned int*, unsigned char)                               -52  [DEL]
  [DEL]     -52 MPU9250::test_error()                                                                -52  [DEL]
  [DEL]     -52 MPU9250_gyro::MPU9250_gyro(MPU9250*, char const*)                                    -52  [DEL]
  [DEL]     -56 mpu9250::info(MPU9250_BUS)                                                           -56  [DEL]
  [DEL]     -56 mpu9250::regdump(MPU9250_BUS)                                                        -56  [DEL]
...                                        -336  [DEL]
  [DEL]    -344 MPU9250_mag::_measure(ak8963_regs)                                                  -344  [DEL]
  [DEL]    -684 MPU9250::MPU9250(device::Device*, device::Device*, char const*, char const*, cha    -684  [DEL]
  [DEL]    -684 MPU9250::init()                                                                     -684  [DEL]
  [DEL]   -1000 MPU9250::measure()                                                                 -1000  [DEL]
 -41.3%   -1011 [43 Others]                                                                        -1011 -41.3%
  -1.0% -1.05Ki [Unmapped]                                                                       +24.2Ki  +0.2%
  -1.0% -10.3Ki TOTAL                                                                            +14.9Ki  +0.1%

This shows that removing mpu9250 from px4_fmu-v2_default would save 10.3 kB of flash. It also shows the sizes of different pieces of the mpu9250 driver.

Firmware Version & Git Tags

The PX4 Firmware Version and Custom Firmware Version are published using the MAVLink AUTOPILOT_VERSION message, and displayed in the QGroundControl Setup > Summary airframe panel:

Firmware info

These are extracted at build time from the active git tag for your repo tree. The git tag should be formatted as <PX4-version>-<vendor-version> (e.g. the tag in the image above was set to v1.8.1-2.22.1).

다른 git 태그 형식을 취하면 버전 정보를 제대로 나타내지 못합니다.

Troubleshooting

일반 빌드 오류

Many build problems are caused by either mismatching submodules or an incompletely cleaned-up build environment. Updating the submodules and doing a distclean can fix these kinds of errors:

git submodule update --recursive
make distclean

Flash overflowed by XXX bytes

The region 'flash' overflowed by XXXX bytes error indicates that the firmware is too large for the target hardware platform. This is common for make px4_fmu-v2_default builds, where the flash size is limited to 1MB.

If you're building the vanilla master branch, the most likely cause is using an unsupported version of GCC. In this case, install the version specified in the Developer Toolchain instructions.

If building your own branch, it is possibly you have increased the firmware size over the 1MB limit. In this case you will need to remove any drivers/modules that you don't need from the build.

macOS: Too many open fileserror

MacOS allows a default maximum of 256 open files in all running processes. The PX4 build system opens a large number of files, so you may exceed this number.

The build toolchain will then report Too many open files for many files, as shown below:

/usr/local/Cellar/gcc-arm-none-eabi/20171218/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-eabi/7.2.1/../../../../arm-none-eabi/bin/ld: cannot find NuttX/nuttx/fs/libfs.a: Too many open files

The solution is to increase the maximum allowed number of open files (e.g. to 300). You can do this in the macOS Terminal for each session:

macOS Catalina: Problem running cmake

As of macOS Catalina 10.15.1 there may be problems when trying to build the simulator with cmake. If you have build problems on this platform then try run the following command in your terminal:

xcode-select --install
sudo ln -s /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/SDKs/MacOSX.sdk/usr/include/* /usr/local/include/

Failed to import Python packages

"Failed to import" errors when running the make px4_sitl jmavsim command indicates that some Python packages are not installed (where expected).

Failed to import jinja2: No module named 'jinja2'
You may need to install it using:
    pip3 install --user jinja2

If you have already installed these dependencies this may be because there is more than one Python version on the computer (e.g. Python 2.7.16 Python 3.8.3), and the module is not present in the version used by the build toolchain.

You should be able to fix this by explicitly installing the dependencies as shown:

pip3 install --user pyserial empy toml numpy pandas jinja2 pyyaml pyros-genmsg packaging

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