Modules Reference: Driver


Source: drivers/px4fmu


This module is responsible for driving the output and reading the input pins. For boards without a separate IO chip (eg. Pixracer), it uses the main channels. On boards with an IO chip (eg. Pixhawk), it uses the AUX channels, and the px4io driver is used for main ones.

It listens on the actuator_controls topics, does the mixing and writes the PWM outputs. In addition it does the RC input parsing and auto-selecting the method. Supported methods are:

  • PPM
  • SBUS
  • DSM
  • SUMD
  • ST24

The module is configured via mode_* commands. This defines which of the first N pins the driver should occupy. By using mode_pwm4 for example, pins 5 and 6 can be used by the camera trigger driver or by a PWM rangefinder driver. Alternatively, the fmu can be started in one of the capture modes, and then drivers can register a capture callback with ioctl calls.


By default the module runs on the work queue, to reduce RAM usage. It can also be run in its own thread, specified via start flag -t, to reduce latency. When running on the work queue, it schedules at a fixed frequency, and the pwm rate limits the update rate of the actuator_controls topics. In case of running in its own thread, the module polls on the actuator_controls topic. Additionally the pwm rate defines the lower-level IO timer rates.


It is typically started with:

fmu mode_pwm

To drive all available pins.

Capture input (rising and falling edges) and print on the console: start the fmu in one of the capture modes:

fmu mode_pwm3cap1

This will enable capturing on the 4th pin. Then do:

fmu test

Use the pwm command for further configurations (PWM rate, levels, ...), and the mixer command to load mixer files.


fmu <command> [arguments...]
   start         Start the task (without any mode set, use any of the mode_*
     [-t]        Run as separate task instead of the work queue

 All of the mode_* commands will start the fmu if not running already


   mode_rcin     Only do RC input, no PWM outputs

   mode_pwm      Select all available pins as PWM








   bind          Send a DSM bind command (module must be running)

   sensor_reset  Do a sensor reset (SPI bus)
     [<ms>]      Delay time in ms between reset and re-enabling

   peripheral_reset Reset board peripherals
     [<ms>]      Delay time in ms between reset and re-enabling

   i2c           Configure I2C clock rate
     <bus_id> <rate> Specify the bus id (>=0) and rate in Hz

   test          Test inputs and outputs

   fake          Arm and send an actuator controls command
     <roll> <pitch> <yaw> <thrust> Control values in range [-100, 100]


   status        print status info


Source: modules/gpio_led


This module is responsible for drving a single LED on one of the FMU AUX pins.

It listens on the vehicle_status and battery_status topics and provides visual annunciation on the LED.


The module runs on the work queue. It schedules at a fixed frequency or 5 Hz


It is started with:

 gpio_led start

To drive an LED connected AUX1 pin.

OR with any of the avaliabel AUX pins

 gpio_led start -p 5

To drive an LED connected AUX5 pin.


gpio_led <command> [arguments...]
   start         annunciation on AUX OUT pin
     [-p]        Use specified AUX OUT pin number (default: 1)



Source: drivers/gps


GPS driver module that handles the communication with the device and publishes the position via uORB. It supports multiple protocols (device vendors) and by default automatically selects the correct one.

The module supports a secondary GPS device, specified via -e parameter. The position will be published on the second uORB topic instance, but it's currently not used by the rest of the system (however the data will be logged, so that it can be used for comparisons).


There is a thread for each device polling for data. The GPS protocol classes are implemented with callbacks so that they can be used in other projects as well (eg. QGroundControl uses them too).


For testing it can be useful to fake a GPS signal (it will signal the system that it has a valid position):

gps stop
gps start -f


gps <command> [arguments...]
     [-d <val>]  GPS device
                 values: <file:dev>, default: /dev/ttyS3
     [-e <val>]  Optional secondary GPS device
                 values: <file:dev>
     [-f]        Fake a GPS signal (useful for testing)
     [-s]        Enable publication of satellite info
     [-i <val>]  GPS interface
                 values: spi|uart, default: uart
     [-p <val>]  GPS Protocol (default=auto select)
                 values: ubx|mtk|ash


   status        print status info


Source: drivers/pwm_out_sim


Driver for simulated PWM outputs.

Its only function is to take actuator_control uORB messages, mix them with any loaded mixer and output the result to the actuator_output uORB topic.

It is used in SITL and HITL.


pwm_out_sim <command> [arguments...]
   start         Start the task in mode_pwm16

 All of the mode_* commands will start the pwm sim if not running already

   mode_pwm      use 8 PWM outputs

   mode_pwm16    use 16 PWM outputs


   status        print status info


Source: drivers/tap_esc


This module controls the TAP_ESC hardware via UART. It listens on the actuator_controls topics, does the mixing and writes the PWM outputs.


Currently the module is implementd as a threaded version only, meaning that it runs in its own thread instead of on the work queue.


The module is typically started with: tap_esc start -d /dev/ttyS2 -n <1-8>


tap_esc <command> [arguments...]
   start         Start the task
     [-d <val>]  Device used to talk to ESCs
                 values: <device>
     [-n <val>]  Number of ESCs
                 default: 4


Source: drivers/vmount


Mount (Gimbal) control driver. It maps several different input methods (eg. RC or MAVLink) to a configured output (eg. AUX channels or MAVLink).

Documentation how to use it is on the gimbal_control page.


Each method is implemented in its own class, and there is a common base class for inputs and outputs. They are connected via an API, defined by the ControlData data structure. This makes sure that each input method can be used with each output method and new inputs/outputs can be added with minimal effort.


Test the output by setting a fixed yaw angle (and the other axes to 0):

vmount stop
vmount test yaw 30


vmount <command> [arguments...]

   test          Test the output: set a fixed angle for one axis (vmount must
                 not be running)
     roll|pitch|yaw <angle> Specify an axis and an angle in degrees


   status        print status info

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